Why the Milk Train Stopped

My dad used to ride the local “milk train” from Omaha where he attended Creighton University back to Cedar County, Nebraska where my grandparents farmed near Fordyce. I don’t know when that train stopped running, but the reasons for its demise can be traced to a disastrous set of public policies that encouraged systematic disinvestment in owner-operated diversified farms.


Diversified farmers raised several types of crops and livestock. They milked cows that grazed on open pastures. They fed very little grain and did not use expensive chemicals and equipment. Chickens were raised for meat and eggs and butcher hogs consumed the excess milk and grain. The hogs were trucked to livestock markets in Omaha and Sioux City and the milk and eggs rode the train to Omaha. Although by no means perfect, this farming system operated throughout the Midwest and Plains States.

Public Policy, Disinvestment and Economic Decline

But starting after the Second World War, local bankers and diversified farmers faced competition from big city banks and government agencies. The USDA played a leading role in convincing farmers to borrow ever-larger amounts of money to finance the application of petroleum-based fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides on corn, soybeans and alfalfa. These crops were (and are) trucked to dairy cows, hogs and chickens housed in closed confinement barns and beef cattle held in large feedlots.

Over time, these policy and investment decisions produced a steady decline in the number of diversified farms as well as the processing plants that once supplied near-by Missouri Valley cities, and export markets. The processors have moved south and west in search of cheap commodities, water and labor.

As a result, Missouri Valley residents now spend billions each year on non-local (read imported) meat and dairy products. For example, we estimate that Kansas City and Omaha area residents spend a combined 300 million dollars a year on imported organic food (USDA, OTA and Census data). Fresh vegetables are the biggest organic import.

A Sustainable Economic Development Strategy

We can compete on price, quality and availability with most imported fresh vegetables by building locally financed, four-season greenhouses near big cities. These modern high capacity facilities can create new jobs while reducing water and energy consumption. They can also eliminate harmful chemicals and fertilizers in our food chain by using soil mixtures based on well-composted livestock and poultry manure from efficient diversified organic farms.

On economic development, its not hard to imagine large and efficient sustainable farms and gardens around every big Missouri Valley city. There are no good reasons why these farms and gardens should not be locally owned and operated by the folks who do the work. Further, sound economic development policy demands that near-by processing plants be owned by entrepreneurs (including workers) who earn reasonable profits and living wages. This is no pipe dream!

Farmer-owned Food Brands

We know smart conventional, natural and organic farmers, ranchers and feeders who are already marketing specialty meats and poultry through established commodity channels. In order to by-pass volatile commodity markets, some of these producers want to own retail brands, and yes, contract with locally-owned food processors and distributors to supply high-end Missouri Valley grocery and food service outlets.

You can help us get started by considering an investment in a new farmer-controlled marketing company. We are using Slow Money principals to guide the organizational process. To learn more about farmer-controlled marketing and local financing, please go to Raised Free.

Finally, we are planning to develop our two Omaha area farms to showcase the latest in efficient organic farming technologies and marketing methods. We would be delighted to discuss our plans with qualified investors and experienced organic farmers and gardeners.

Thank you.

Jim Steffen

Updated: 03-28-2020

Sustinable Farmers Are Going Out of Business in the Missouri Valley

Will this child grow up to own this land?

Ours is an old story, but it’s still not easy for me to tell. My wife and I are 74 years old and live in the Kansas City area. When I was a child my grandfather helped my parents buy an 80-acre farm near Omaha. This farm is now certified organic. Later on, they bought a half-section of pasture near Massena, Iowa.

But today, these farms are too small to make money in organic and conventional markets. In other words, there is not enough profit to bankroll a young farmer(s) who would own and operate our farms This means that when we pass, our farms will be sold, probably to a large farmer/landowner or non-local corporation. Either way, these farms will most likely go back to non-organic corn and beans that will be fed to livestock, exported to Mexico or turned into ethanol. And most important, the little kid shown above will do the farm work, but never own the land.

No Black Hats

Before I go further, keep in mind that there are no black hats here. We (farmers, investors, lenders and consumers) are all in this together. Next, while farmers understand this story in detail, big city consumers do not have a clue.

The Prevailing Land Ownership Story

Consumers do not understand how current land ownership trends affect the environment as well as food prices and quality in big cities and small towns. This land ownership story has four chapters:

  • Technology (machines and livestock confinement)
  • Markets (commodities)
  • Environment (water, soil, wildlife)
  • Money (non-local)

A New Story

Once consumers begin to understand the old story, we can work together to write a new one. The new story line will feature skilled farmers, ranchers and gardeners who own land and pass it on to the next generation in the same community!

We want to share proven, practical ways to build strong local food economies, based on farmer-owned land and local food brands. If you belong to a church, civic organization, PTA or business group, please contact me to arrange an informal presentation, at no cost.

Jim Steffen


Livestock and Pasture: The Foundation of Sustainable Agriculture and Healthy Soils

These photos and drawings show an organic crop sequence (rotation) that includes livestock, pasture, hay, grain and fresh vegetables. A typical rotation includes some “permanent” pasture that is never turned under. Photo No. 2 shows permanent pasture that has been in continuous production for over 60 years without the addition of petroleum-based fertilizers, GMO seed or chemical weed sprays.

No. 1
Milk cows on pasture, no animal confinement and no year-around manure accumulation. 1951 photo courtesy of the Boys Town Hall of History.

No. 2
High protein pasture with NRCS damn as water source, owned by Massena Farms, South of Massena, IA, 2006 photo.


No. 3
This concept drawing shows mobile pasture coups for poultry. Confinement buildings are not required and manure does not accumulate. Drawing by Bruce Arndt, 2013.

No 4.
Spring compost being made with livestock manure collected from winter shelters at the former Boys Town dairy farm. Photo by Bob Steffen, circa 1970.


No. 5
Well-cured compost for fresh vegetable production at Massena Farms near Bennington, NE. Photo by Jim Steffen, circa 2000.


No. 6
Vegetables fertilized with well-aged compost at Massena’s Bennington farm. No petroleum- based chemicals are required. Photo by Jim Steffen, 2004.


No. 7
Old alfalfa with new frost-seeded grass on Massena’s Bennington farm. Photo by Jim Steffen, 2008.


No 8.
Combine on oats over new alfalfa at Massena’s Bennington farm. Non-GMO oats and other small grains feed people and livestock while protecting new hay without farm chemicals or irrigation. Photo by Jim Steffen, circa 2000.

Posted 01-17-2017


Investing in Sustainable Agriculture

Courtesy Boys Town Hall of History

Sustainable (natural and organic) agriculture in the Missouri Valley will begin to thrive once qualified local investors understand the profit potential of farmer-controlled food brands along with efficient local food economies. To develop new farms and food brands, Raised Free offers market information and market management services in the Omaha and Kansas City areas. We are a market management company specializing in building relationships with urban consumers who want sustainable foods from local farmers and food businesses.


For us, “sustainable” describes local and regional food systems that are in transition to organic and similar methods. These farmer-controlled systems have strict origin identification procedures with planned investment programs for profitable farms and food processing designed for near-by urban and suburban residents.

Brand Partnerships

Farmer-controlled partnerships (LLC’s) will own and manage these brands. In order to produce truckload lots from tight geographic areas, each brand will contract with local partnership farmers. In return for a negotiated percentage of the brand profits, local minority investors will fund marketing, processing and distribution.


Our experiences are in marketing and management. We are not farm managers, real estate agents, bankers or investment advisors. However, we are forming working partnerships with firms and individuals with these skills.

Please call or e-mail for more information.

Jim Steffen,

Concept Drawings: Pasture-Based Food Systems

The first two drawings show beef and poultry on intensively managed pasture. Pastured-raised livestock and poultry are at the heart of commercially viable sustainable food systems in the Missouri Valley.

The next drawing is of a small on-farm processing facility for poultry, lamb and small market hogs. These low cost facilities will help estimate processing costs and test consumer preferences for various products, packaging and price combinations. The research results will be used to design commercial-scale facilities, beginning in the Omaha and Kansas City area.

The last drawing shows a large 4-season greenhouse for year-around fresh vegetable production. This drawing is based on an existing greenhouse that produced vegetable sets for early spring hoop-house production and edible flowers during the winter. It helped supply Omaha restaurants for 30 years. Many similar facilities will be needed in the Missouri Valley as demand increases for fresh, locally grown organic vegetables.

Marketing “Sustainably” Produced and Processed Foods

Photo from Jim Knopik, Fullerton, NE

Before the food industry makes a serious move toward “sustainable” practices, it needs a concrete definition of the term, along with consumer demand data that offers real profit opportunities to each member of the food system (retail, farming, food processing, etc.).

Sustainable = Local + Organic + Pasture + Profit

For us in the colder parts of the Missouri Valley, our definition combines pasture-based production of organic meat, dairy and poultry with enough grain to feed hogs and chickens, and enough hay to winter cattle and sheep. The hilly and more erodible land near the Missouri River will benefit from pasture-based agriculture, along with local economies. Further, farm profits will improve because production costs for meat and dairy (with intensive pasture management) and processing costs (with modern facilities close to population centers) will be less than the same costs in the conventional food system. Less grain, less fuel and more income from farmer-controlled food brands are the main elements in this equation.

Raised Free

By definition, animals raised on pasture require only small amounts of non-GMO grain, which makes continuous confinement feeding unnecessary and expensive. Over time, diversified food systems that integrate different food groups in close proximity to one-another will rival monoculture unit costs. For example, commercial gardens can use well-composted manure from near-by dairies while hay and small grains can be produced in continuous rotations with non-GMO corn, soybeans, alfalfa and new pasture. Further, composted commercial food wastes from near-by population centers can help rebuild soils and reduce landfill costs for institutions, restaurants and grocery stores.

Jobs and Brand Partnerships

Large and local sustainable food systems could also bring new living wage jobs with safe working conditions in fields and packinghouses, particularly if these operations are located near big cities where decent jobs are in short supply. The quality of these jobs depends on the ability of farmers, contractors and food processors to access large amounts of risk capital to finance advanced technologies that reduce labor costs and food prices. Local brand partnerships offer excellent platforms to negotiate technology investments, wages, working conditions, farm profits and food prices.

Food Miles and Food Security

As farmer-controlled sustainable food brands capture market share, they will begin to eliminate “food mile” costs from grocery stores prices. Improved food security is another important benefit. Food safety and environmental issues will not change significantly with sustainable agriculture. However, improved early detection of health and environmental threats will reduce overall regulatory costs if state and local authorities adopt cross training in multiple environmental and health disciplines.


The main barriers to large-scale sustainable food production and processing are a lack of proven consumer demand, and start-up complexity. For example, Omaha area farmers will not produce pasture-raised chickens in any numbers without access to a USDA-inspected processing facility that can be scaled up to supply branded, certified organic products to high-end grocery stores. Investors and lenders can be forgiven if they hesitate to finance these operations without reliable demand data.

The first steps toward these data require consumers to understand the basic issues, particularly the environmental, health and economic importance of local, pasture-based food systems. They must also have access to locally grown products that are similar to imported products in quality and price. Consumer education and product development go hand in hand. Simply talking about food system sustainability is not productive. Local products must be available in amounts that can meet continually increasing demand.

Building consumer support need not be complex and expensive. It starts with three key elements: 1) Small production units with local or on-farm processing, 2) Full cost accounting, and 3) A serious investment in marketing. If you build it, they will not come if they don’t know about it. Marketing is the key. CSA’s, farmers markets, local investment clubs, churches, business groups, etc. are all great places to meet like-minded urban consumers and potential investors.

Next, if demand is good at prices close to organic imports, the local brand partners will need to start raising large amounts of money on a continuous basis to: 1) Train and equip additional producers, 2) Build USDA-inspected processing in near-by cities, and 3) Finance ever more marketing campaigns.

Posted: 01/03/2017